Handling website buttons in Selenium

In our previous article, Parsing the data of site’s catalogue, using Beautiful Soup and Selenium we have addressed the problem of working with dynamic pages, but sometimes this method doesn’t work, as with “Show more” buttons. Today we will show how you can imitate button click with Selenium to load a whole page, collect beer IDs, ratings, and send the data to Clickhouse.

Webpage structure

Let’s take a random brewery that has 105 check-ins, or customer feedbacks. One page with check-ins displays up to 25 records and looks like this:

If we try to scroll down to the bottom, we will encounter the same button that prevents us from getting all 105 records at once:

First off, to address this task, let’s find out the button class and just click it until it works. Since Selenium launches the browser and the next “Show more” button may not be loaded in time, that’s why we set 2-second intervals between the clicks. As soon as the page is loaded we will take its content and parse the relevant data.
Let’s view the source code and  find the button, it’s assigned to the more_checkins class.

The button has style attributes, such as display. When the button is displayed this attribute takes the block value. But when we scroll the page to the buttom and there is nothing left to display, the attribute takes the none value and we can stop clicking.

Writing our code

Let’s import the necessary libraries

import time
from selenium import webdriver
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup as bs
import re
from datetime import datetime
from clickhouse_driver import Client

Chromedriver is used to run Selenium tests on Chrome and can be downloaded from the official website

Connect to the database and create cookies:

client = Client(host='ec1-23-456-789-10.us-east-2.compute.amazonaws.com', user='', password='', port='9000', database='')
count = 0
cookies = {
    'domain':'untappd.com',
    'expiry':1594072726,
    'httpOnly':True,
    'name':'untappd_user_v3_e',
    'path':'/',
    'secure':False,
    'value':'your_value'
}

You can find out more about working with cookies in Selenium from Parsing the data of site’s catalogue, using Beautiful Soup and Selenium. We will need the untappd_user_v3_e parameter.

As we are going to work with pages that have more than hundreds of thousands of records, it’s pretty heavy and our instance may be overloaded. To prevent this, we will shut down unnecessary parts and then enable authentication cookie:

options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
prefs = {'profile.default_content_setting_values': {'images': 2, 
                            'plugins': 2, 'fullscreen': 2}}
options.add_experimental_option('prefs', prefs)
options.add_argument("start-maximized")
options.add_argument("disable-infobars")
options.add_argument("--disable-extensions")
driver = webdriver.Chrome(options=options)
driver.get('https://untappd.com/TooSunnyBrewery')
driver.add_cookie(cookies)

We will need a function that would take a link, open it in the browser, load a whole page and return a soup object to be parsed. Get the  display attribute, assign it to the more_checkins: variable and click the button until the attribute is none. Let’s set 2-second intervals between the clicks, to wait for the page to load. As soon as we received the page, converth it into a soup object using the bs4 library.

def get_html_page(url):
    driver.get(url)
    driver.maximize_window()
    more_checkins = driver.execute_script("var more_checkins=document.getElementsByClassName('more_checkins_logged')[0].style.display;return more_checkins;")
    print(more_checkins)
    while more_checkins != "none":
        driver.execute_script("document.getElementsByClassName('more_checkins_logged')[0].click()")
        time.sleep(2)
        more_checkins = driver.execute_script("var more_checkins=document.getElementsByClassName('more_checkins_logged')[0].style.display;return more_checkins;")
        print(more_checkins)
    source_data = driver.page_source
    soup = bs(source_data, 'lxml')
    return soup

Write the following function that will take a page url, pass it in the get_html_page and receive a soup object to parse. The function returns zipped lists with beer IDs and ratings.

See how you can use Beautiful Soup to retrieve data from a website catalogue

def parse_html_page(url):
    soup = get_html_page(url)
    brewery_id = soup.find_all('a', {'class':'label',
                                     'href':re.compile('https://untappd.com/brewery/*')})[0]['href'][28:]
    items = soup.find_all('div', {'class':'item',
                                  'id':re.compile('checkin_*')})
    checkin_rating_list = []
    beer_id_list = []
    count = 0
    print('Filling the lists')
    for checkin in items:
        print(count, '/', len(items))
        try:
            checkin_rating_list.append(float(checkin.find('div', {'class':'caps'})['data-rating']))
        except Exception:
            checkin_rating_list.append('cast(Null as Nullable(Float32))')
        try:
            beer_id_list.append(int(checkin.find('a', {'class':'label'})['href'][-7:]))
        except Exception:
            beer_id_list.append('cast(Null as Nullable(UInt64))')
        count += 1 
    return zip(checkin_rating_list, beer_id_list)

Finally, write a function call for the breweries. We’ve covered how to receive a list of Russian brewery IDs in this article: Example of using dictionaries in Clickhouse with Untappd.
Let’s fetch it from the Clickhouse table.

brewery_list = client.execute('SELECT brewery_id FROM brewery_info')

If we print out the brewery_list, we will find out that the data is stored in a list of tuples.

Let’s make it a bit prettier with the lambda expression:

flatten = lambda lst: [item for sublist in lst for item in sublist]
brewery_list = flatten(brewery_list)

That’s much better:

Create a url for each brewery in the list, it includes a standard link and a brewery ID in the end. Pass it to the parse_html_page function that fetches the get_html_page and return lists with beer_id and rating_score. Since the lists are zipped, we can iterate throught them, create a tuple and send it to Clickhouse.

for brewery_id in brewery_list:
    print('Fetching the brewery with id', brewery_id, count, '/', len(brewery_list))
    url = 'https://untappd.com/brewery/' + str(brewery_id)
    returned_checkins = parse_html_page(url)
    for rating, beer_id in returned_checkins:
        tuple_to_insert = (rating, beer_id)
        try:
            client.execute(f'INSERT INTO beer_reviews VALUES {tuple_to_insert}')
        except errors.ServerException as E:
            print(E)
    count += 1

That’s it about the way we can handle “Show more” buttons. Over time we will form a large dataset for further analysis, to work with in our next series.

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